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April Is Alcohol Awareness Month 2019

Posted Friday 05 April 2019 16:47 by in Weight loss by Tim Deakin

alcohol awareness

Alcohol addiction continues to be an issue on both a national and global scale. In their lifetime, one in every 12 adults – or 17.6 million people – will suffer from an alcohol use disorder or develop dependence on alcohol. [1]

Statistics like these are what make Alcohol Awareness Month so important. With its slogan “Help for Today, Hope for Tomorrow”, this year’s initiative aims to reduce the stigma associated with alcohol addiction by offering information, support and guidance.

Alcohol Awareness Month was founded and sponsored by the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. To do our bit for Alcohol Awareness Month 2019, we’re here with further information to raise awareness of exactly what impact alcohol can have on your health.

Alcohol and your body

Alcohol and sleep

Many adults use alcohol to help them fall asleep, but while it can make you fall asleep fast, it also contributes to poorer quality sleep overall.[2] Drinking can aggravate breathing problems, block REM sleep and interrupt your circadian rhythm.

Alcohol and sexual function

One 2007 study found that 72% of male participants experienced sexual dysfunction, most notably premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction. The amount of alcohol consumed was the most significant factor in determining sexual problems.[3]

Alcohol and urine

Most drinkers are familiar with the sensation of ‘breaking the seal’, which occurs because alcohol is a diuretic. This means it acts on your kidneys and makes you pee out more than you take in. In fact, for every 1g of alcohol consumed, urine excretion increases by 10ml.[4] This can cause significant levels of dehydration.

Alcohol and blood pressure

Drinking too much can also impact your cardiovascular health, leading to a range of symptoms including high blood pressure. A 2013 study found that 16% of hypertension problems in the US are linked to excessive alcohol consumption.[5]

Alcohol and migraines

The NHS lists alcohol as one of the significant dietary triggers for migraines.[6] These can be hugely painful and debilitating headaches, often striking regularly throughout one’s life. You can find effective migraine medication at Express Pharmacy.

Alcohol and disease

Alcohol and liver disease

Currently, one in five people in the UK drink alcohol to a level which could harm their liver. This can lead to conditions like a build-up of fat in the liver, hepatitis and even cirrhosis, which affects one in 10 people who drink harmful amounts.[7]

Alcohol and cancer

Along with smoking, alcohol is one of the biggest preventable causes of cancer. Alcohol can cause up to 7 kinds of cancer, including breast cancer, liver cancer and bowel cancer.[8]

Alcohol and diabetes

There are several risk factors associated with Type 2 diabetes, including family history, age, weight and ethnic background. However, alcohol is another significant factor. Not only can it lead to weight gain, but excessive intake is also associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes.[9]

Alcohol and heart disease

There is a very clear link between alcohol and high blood pressure. Over time, excessive alcohol can put further strain on the heart leading to cardiovascular disease, increasing your risk of heart disease and stroke.[10]

Alcohol and your appearance

Alcohol and physical appearance

Alcoholism can have a significant impact on your physical appearance. Factors like personal hygiene and general grooming can suffer, but excessive drinking can also lead to poor complexion, dark under-eye circles, dehydration, tiredness and an overall more haggard appearance.[11]

Alcohol and ‘beer bellies’

Drink large amounts of beer has been linked to both weight gain and an increase in belly fat. In fact, one study found that men who drank more than three drinks a day were 80% more likely to have a lot of belly fat.[12]

Alcohol and weight management

Alcohol and food equivalents

The average wine drinker takes in 2000kcal from alcohol every month, while drinking 5 pints a week for a year adds up to 44,000kcal. The NHS offers an insight into the calorie content and food equivalents of some of the UK’s most popular drinks. For example:

  • One standard glass of wine (126kcal) = 1 Cadbury Chocolate Mini Roll
  • One pint of 5% strength beer (215kcal) = 1 packet of McCoy’s salted crisps[13]

Alcohol and weight loss

As well as containing significant amounts of calories, alcohol can also prevent weight loss by lowering inhibitions, making a take away or a chocolate bar seem much more appealing. It can also make you less likely to exercise.[14]

You can find safe and effective weight loss medication at Express Pharmacy.

Alcohol and mental health

Alcoholism and dependence

Alcoholism is the most serious form of drinking problem. It describes a strong desire to drink which often can’t be controlled. For alcoholics, drinking takes priority over all obligations including work and family. It usually develops as instances of harmful drinking, or binge drinking, become more and more regular.[15]

Alcohol and anxiety

While alcohol may sedate anxiety in the short term, in the long term it can make it worse. This is true even for moderate amounts of alcohol. The Anxiety and Depression Association of America reports that 20% of people with a social anxiety disorder also suffer from alcohol dependence.[16]

Alcohol and aggression

When we’re drunk, we’re more likely to misinterpret other people’s behaviour and react to things emotionally rather than logically. Alcohol reduces our ability to think straight, hence why aggression and alcohol are so closely linked. Binge drinking increases our chances of both being aggressive and being the subject of someone else’s aggression.[17]

Alcohol withdrawal

Withdrawal symptoms are almost always an aspect of alcohol dependence and are a clear sign that you are drinking too much. They may include physical symptoms like sweating, nausea and tremors, as well as psychological symptoms such as depression, irritability, anxiety and insomnia.[18]

Alcohol and depression

Depression is a common mental health concern, affecting one in five of us in our lifetime.[19] Drinking can make depression more likely. Over time, regular drinking lowers your levels of serotonin, the brain chemical that helps to regulate your mood, making you more susceptible to depression.[20] What’s more, drinking can create a vicious cycle whereby your relationships, work life and social life all suffer, which again can make depression more likely to occur.

Managing alcohol dependence can be a long and difficult road to navigate, but it isn’t one you should suffer alone. Speak to those around you or arrange an appointment with a GP to start making positive changes to your life today – one step at a time.

If you have any queries or concerns about your health, contact Express Pharmacy today. We offer access to effective medication easily and discreetly. Get in touch today using our Live Chat service or by calling 0208 123 07 03.


[1] Facing Addiction. Alcohol Awareness Month — April 2019. 2019

[2] National Sleep Foundation. How Alcohol Affects the Quality — and Quantity — Of Sleep. 2018

[3] Aracknal, B.S., Benegal, V. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction in male subjects with alcohol dependence. 2007

[4] Drink Aware. Why Does Alcohol Make You Pee More? 2018

[5] Loyke, H.F., MD. Five Phases of Blood Pressure in Alcoholics. 2013

[6] NHS. Migraines. 2019

[7] British Liver Trust. Alcohol and Liver Disease. 2019

[8] Cancer Research UK. Does alcohol cause cancer? 2018

[9] Diabetes UK. Alcohol and diabetes. 2018

[10] British Heart Foundation. Effects of alcohol on your heart. 2017

[11] Alcohol Awareness. What are the physical signs of alcoholism? 2016

[12] Schröder, H. et al. Relationship of abdominal obesity with alcohol consumption at population scale. 2007

[13] NHS. Calories in Alcohol. 2016

[14] Drink Aware. How does alcohol affect weight loss? 2017

[15] Drink Aware. What is alcoholism? 2019

[16] Anxiety and Depression Association of America. Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Abuse. 2018

[17] Home Office. Violence in the night-time economy: key findings from the research. 2004

[18] Drink Aware. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms. 2017

[19] Royal College of Psychiatrists. Depression. 2019

[20] Pietraszek, M.H. et al. Alcohol-induced depression involvement in serotonin. 1991

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For Better and for Worse: How Our Dietary Habits Have Changed

Posted Friday 29 March 2019 14:12 by in Weight loss by Marina Abdalla

The health of UK adults is constantly shifting – with both positive and negative effects. For example, in 2016/17 there were 617,000 admissions to NHS hospitals in which obesity was a factor, a rise of 18% on 2015/16.[1] This is an important fact to note, as obesity is associated with a range of serious health concerns including several forms of cancer.[2]

However, in other ways our health is becoming more positive overall. For example, the UK has seen a huge reduction in deaths from infectious disease. In 1901, around a third of deaths were due to infectious disease, but now this is around 8%.[3]

Now, newly released results from a nine-year analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey has provided a clear holistic picture of our nation’s health, for better and worse. Let’s take a look.

THE GOOD: We’ve seen a large drop in fizzy drink consumption

The findings report that a significant number of children are turning their backs on fizzy drinks, with numbers falling by a third in the last nine years. Around half of children do not drink them, and those that that do are consuming less than children did a decade ago in 2008-2009.[4]

This has helped to contribute to a larger overall reduction in sugar consumption across the country.

Researchers asked people to keep a diary over four days, and those who did not drink any fizzy drinks in that time were categorised as ‘non-consumers’. These accounted for over half of all respondents.

What’s more, these tests were carried out before the tax on sugary drinks was introduced in 2018.

THE BAD: More needs to be done to help increase fruit and vegetable intake

It wasn’t all good news. The report, from the Food Standards Agency and Public Health England, also found that fruit and vegetable consumption has not improved, and remains under the recommended five-a-day. Fibre intake has also fallen, as had vitamin and mineral consumption overall.[5]

The government campaign for five-a-day was launched in 2003, but seems to have had little effect. The campaign was based on advice from the World Health Organisation that eating a minimum of 400 grams of fruit and vegetables a day can lower the risk of serious health concerns like stroke, heart disease and various forms of cancer.[6]

The importance of lifestyle changes

What these results show is that improving your health begins by making the right lifestyle changes, be that increasing your fruit and veg intake or cutting down on high-sugar products.

Other examples of positive lifestyle changes would be engaging in regular exercise, which can help with weight management, mental health and cardiovascular health[7], or quitting smoking. Smoking is the single biggest avoidable risk factor for cancer, and it also plays a role in a whole host of other health concerns such as respiratory disease, diabetes and reproductive issues.[8]

Of course, medical intervention is often required for a wide range of physical and mental health concerns, be it in the form of surgery, counsel or medication. However, changing your lifestyle in positive ways is the ideal starting point for improving your health in the long run.

At Express Pharmacy, you’ll find medication for a range of health concerns, such as weight management, erectile dysfunction and smoking cessation. Our simple 3-step services makes it easy to access treatment quickly and discreetly. Get in touch to find out more. Call 0208 123 07 03 or use our Live Chat service.


[1] NHS Digital. Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet. 2018 [Accessed March 2019]

[2] Cancer Research UK. Overweight and obesity statistics. 2018 [Accessed March 2019]

[3] Public Health Matters. 10 facts that sum up our nation’s health in 2017. 2017, Public Health England [Accessed Mach 2019]

[4] Public Health England. UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey. 2018 [Accessed March 2019]

[5] Public Health England. UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey. 2018 [Accessed March 2019]

[6] NHS UK. Why 5 a day? 2018 [Accessed March 2019]

[7] Bupa. Benefits of exercise. 2019 [Accessed March 2019]

[8] Action on Smoking and Health. Fact Sheets. 2018 [Accessed March 2019]

Tags: General Health Weight Loss

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Is Malaria Really That Serious?

Posted Thursday 28 March 2019 17:41 by in Anti Malaria by Johanna Galyen

It’s been around for centuries. We all know we should avoid it, protect ourselves from it, use the right medications to prevent it, and a net to protect our beds at night from it – but why? Why is malaria such a big deal? It’s 2019, should you really worry about a tiny mosquito as you travel on holiday this summer? Why is such a tiny little pest causing so many problems?

The answer is rather scary. The World Health Organisation stated “There were an estimated 219 million cases of malaria in 90 countries. Malaria deaths reached 435,000 in 2017.” While many measures are in place to help lower these terrible statistics, the prevalence of malaria is something that should not be ignored.

You need to know the symptoms of malaria

After being bitten by a mosquito carrying malaria, there are no symptoms initially. Only the female Anopheles mosquitos carry malaria, and they’re actually carrying a parasite that is injected into your bloodstream when they bite. These little ladies do not leave a bite mark, and the site does not swell up or does spot itch as most people think of mosquito bites. This is one of the reasons that the bite is so dangerous; you probably don’t even know that it happened.

The symptoms can take one to two weeks to appear (or even a year) in your body because the parasite travels to your liver and begins to grow there. The National Health Service (NHS) says that Malaria’s symptoms are similar initially to a flu-like illness:

  • High fever, above 38° C
  • Chills and sweats alternating
  • Headaches
  • Muscle aches
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea

Without proper care, malaria can cause liver failure, fluid in the lungs (pulmonary oedema), kidney failure, anaemia, and ultimately death.

You Need to Know Where Malaria is Prevalent

Malaria countries, or countries affected by Malaria, are located in Africa, Central and South America, some parts of the Caribbean, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the South Pacific. Mosquitos like warm, moist climates and thrive in areas near bodies of water.

Africa has the most significant amount of malaria, according to WHO, and “it was found that 92% of malaria cases and 93% of malaria deaths was prevalent here” in 2017. The World Health Organisation also stated that “In 2017, five countries accounted for nearly half of all malaria cases worldwide: Nigeria (25%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), Mozambique (5%), India (4%) and Uganda (4%).”

You Need to Know How to Protect Yourself

If you are travelling to an area that has Malaria, there are many necessary steps to protect yourself from this disease. Each of the three preventative steps is important, but none of them will protect 100%. Therefore, if possible, you should utilise all three ways simultaneously.

1.Anti-Malarial Medications

Anti-Malarial medications work to destroy the parasite within the body. Three of these medications are Doxycycline, Malarone or Lariam. Because Malaria is a parasite that has different growing stages, these medications must be taken prior, during, and after your trip (for a certain number of weeks) to ensure that your body has the right amount of malaria-fighting properties in it. If you do not take the medication in its entirety, some of the parasites may survive.

While the three medications are equal in their effectiveness, they each come with differing side effects and interactions. It is essential that you speak with your GP to ensure that you take the right medication for you.

2. Malaria Net for Your Bed

A simple mosquito net for your bed is very inexpensive. It is so financially cheap that you may wonder why a net is so important? To help you understand this, it is good to remember that the female Anopheles mosquito doesn’t start working at 8 am. She likes to work late at night around 10 pm to 2 am, which most people are going to bed or asleep at these times. To prevent even one mosquito from biting you, a simple net can help protect you.

3. Bug Spray

So if you’re taking the medications and using a net, is bug spray still needed? The answer is yes. Bug spray is helpful if you are going to be up and moving during the later hours of the evening, such as walking outside of your tent to use the restroom. According to Fit for Travel, it is best to use a bug spray that has at least DEET 20-30%, Picaridin 20%, or Lemon eucalyptus 30%. They each smell differently, have varying concentrations and warnings and should be reapplied at different intervals. It is important to look carefully at your bug spray's directions and follow it’s recommendations.

You Need to Know What To Do If You Think You Have Malaria

Just like most illnesses, the sooner you can begin treatment for Malaria, the better it is for your body. So if you start experiencing symptoms, it is best to get to your healthcare provider and be tested. It is crucial to inform your doctor that you have been in an area that has Malaria so they can order the right blood tests that may be missed otherwise.

A thick blood smear is currently the most sensitive test accord to Lab Test Online, and it is considered to be “the gold standard” of testing. By taking a few large drops of blood, smearing it on a glass slide, and looking at it under a microscope, the doctor can search for the Plasmodium parasite.

If you do have Malaria, your GP may prescribe medication for you. Currently, Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are used to treat Malaria. In years past, Chloroquine was used, but many types of Malaria have become resistant against them. Some physicians may use anti-malarial drugs in combination with ACT therapy as well. Whichever medications you are prescribed, it is important to take the entire dose of medicine in the right quantity each day. Even if you start to feel better after a few days, you must take all of the medication to ensure that all of the parasites are destroyed.

Conclusion

Malaria is a serious illness that you should take the appropriate preventative steps to avoid. Even though it has been around for centuries, it is still a significant threat to your health in 2019. So as you plan for your holiday this season, be sure to research and make the right plans for your trip. A little bit of planning and preventative steps can ensure that you will be healthy and able to enjoy your time away!

Being prepared for Malaria is very important, and we are here to help you get ready in the most effective way possible. Discover medications for your anti-malarial needs – here at Express Pharmacy. We can help you gain access to effective treatment swiftly and discreetly. Contact us today by calling 0208 123 07 03 or by using our online Live Chat service.

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How to Spot the Differences Between Hay Fever and a Cold

Posted Monday 18 March 2019 13:31 by in Hay Fever and Allergy Relief by Johanna Galyen

hay fever medication

As the cold weather turns into springtime, we start to feel the urge to get outside and enjoy the flowers, budding trees, gentle breezes, and sunshine. The excitement of the warmer weather can quickly dampen with the coming of hay fever season. But is it really hay fever? Is the scratchy sore throat a sign of allergies or an infection? Isn’t it still cold and flu season? Should I just stay home from work? Before the panic starts to ensue, let’s stop for a few moments and look at the eight differences between hay fever and the common cold.

1: The common cold is caused by a viral infection

According to Medical News Today, the common cold is most frequently from coronaviruses or rhinoviruses. While there are over 200 subtypes of viruses that can cause these symptoms, it is usually impossible to tell which virus is making a person sick. Thankfully, these viruses are generally short-lived, and you’ll start to feel better pretty soon.

2. Hay Fever is caused by an allergic reaction

pollen countThe body protects itself through the immune system. The immune system works 24:7 to protect you from germs, viruses, and bacteria. For those susceptible to hay fever, the pollen is identified as an invader and many symptoms like allergic rhinitis can be seen. Just know this: your immune system wants it gone!

To get rid of the allergen, the body produces histamine. Histamine is similar to a chemical messenger in that it signals your body to start making more fluids and mucus to trap the invader and flush it away. What does that mean for you? Hay fever can produce watery eyes, fluid in your ears, congestion in your nose, and a draining-like sensation in the back of your throat.

As annoying as these symptoms are, the body is just trying to protect itself from the foreign invaders. To treat these symptoms, your GP may recommend some antihistamines (a medicine that fights against the histamine).

3. An itchy throat is different than a sore throat

When you first notice that dreaded feeling in your throat, stop and evaluate what you are really feeling. There is a difference between a dry, scratchy (itchy) throat and a painful throat. Pain and soreness usually indicate an infection like the common cold. Severe throat pain may mean that you have a bacterial infection like strep throat.

A scratchy, itchy feeling in your throat is typical of allergies. This feeling is caused by the presence of pollen or growing grasses that irritates your nose and mouth.

A word of caution: An itchy throat is also a sign of a dangerous allergic reaction, called anaphylaxis. It may be accompanied by a swelling or a tight closing sensation in the back of your throat. Sometimes, a person’s voice may start sounding – typically higher-pitched and more strained. If you have any of these symptoms, seek medical treatment immediately by calling 999.

4. Check the colour of your mucus

This may sound a little bit gross, but the colour of your mucus is helpful to determine if you have allergies or illness. Clear drainage is typical of allergies whereas shades of yellow and green can indicate an infection. If you are seeing green, then you should be seeing your general practitioner.

Here’s a tip: don’t check the colour of the mucus for the first few hours when you wake up. During the night, the mucus can dry out somewhat, and it naturally turns yellow, greenish, and brown. Wait a few hours, and then see what colour it is.

5. Look at your eyes

The Eyes are the window to your soul – Shakespeare

Shakespeare wasn’t a physician, but he was very accurate when talking about the eyes. How your eyes look also can reflect your health. Symptoms of hay fever that involves the eyes can include:

  • Redness around the eyes
  • Itching of the eyes
  • Clear watering or tearing of the eyes
  • Puffiness around the eye
  • Pain around the sinuses

Sometimes a cold virus can affect the eyes, so it is important to highlight how the similarities and differences. Those who have a cold virus may experience:

  • Redness of the eye (also known as pink-eye)
  • Soreness around the eyes
  • Yellow or green drainage (worse in the mornings)
  • Painful eyes
  • Sinus pressure and pain

Remember, if you have yellow or green drainage coming out of your eyes, this should be handled carefully. The drainage can carry the virus and can be shared with others, so wash your hands frequently!

6. Timing is important

The timing, or the progression of a cold virus, is different than allergies. A cold often comes on slowly over a few days and progressively gets worse. Allergies can attack you at any time with any range of severity. How long that you are ill is also important to note. The common cold typically lasts up to 14 days. Allergies can last for weeks and months.

Here’s a tip: check the pollen counts for the day, and see if you should protect your nose and mouth from the pollen before you go outside.

7. Do you have body aches and a fever?

Aching joints and muscle pains are often the symptoms of the common cold or flu virus. These typically occur at the beginning of the infection. Additionally, if your body temperature goes above 37.6° C, this usually indicates that you have a fever as your body is trying to kill the virus.

Seasonal allergies, like hay fever, do not cause body aches or fever in most people. Some people may experience a slight increase in temperature, but it is really a fever unless your temperature passes 37.6° C or 100.4° F.

8. Is there an Allergic Salute?

Just as a member of the military salutes a higher-ranking official, there is a salute for allergies. The so-called allergic salute refers to the constant wiping of one’s nose. It can create a small red crease on the bridge of the nose, and it is most often seen in children. Adults, who suffer from hay fever, can also have this redness.

Those with the common cold typically have red, puffy noses from constant blowing, but they do not have the crease on their nose or are seen wiping it continually.

Knowing the difference between hay fever and the common cold is important for your health. In some situations, you may need additional support, treatment, and medication. Discover medication for a variety of health concerns – from antihistamines to nasal sprays – here at Express Pharmacy. We can help you gain access to effective treatment for hay fever swiftly and discreetly. Contact us today by calling 0208 123 07 03 or by using our online Live Chat service.

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Your Blood Type Could Increase Your Chances of Developing Travellers’ Diarrhoea, According to New Data

Posted Friday 15 March 2019 22:45 by in Travellers Diarrhoea by Tim Deakin

food market

Travellers’ diarrhoea, caused by viruses, bacteria or protozoa, is the most common infection experienced by travellers, affect over 20 percent of those who travel to high-risk destinations of the world.[1]

These high-risk areas are mostly found in South and South East Asia.[2] The condition occurs equally in male and female travellers and is more common in young adult travellers than in older ones.[3]

But now it seems that there many be other factors involved in one’s inclination towards or susceptibility to traveller’s diarrhoea – namely, blood type.

A new study[4], published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation, has found that those with Type A blood are likely to be struck down with travellers’ diarrhoea sooner and more severely. These findings are significant for UK travellers, as nearly half of Brits have type A or AB blood.[5]

Researches gave more than 100 volunteers water containing enterotoxigenic E.coli. The results found that 81% of those with type A blood required medical attention for diarrhoea as a consequence, compared to just 56% in other blood types.

The study concluded that this is due to the way E.coli releases a protein which latches onto the intestinal cells of those with blood type A.

How to avoid travellers’ diarrhoea

Travellers’ diarrhoea is defined as the passing of three or more loose/watery bowel motions within a 24-hour period. It can be accompanied by other symptoms such as stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting and fever.[6] Risk factors involved in travellers’ diarrhoea can include choice of eating place, season of travel, destination, diet, age and genetics.[7]

But despite being a common condition faced by many jet-setters, there are things you can do to significantly reduce your chances of contracting the disease.

The World Health Organisation has outlined their 5 key tips to enjoying safer food abroad, in an attempt to prevent the spread of food-borne diseases. These tips are:

  • Keep clean – wash your hands often, especially before handling food
  • Separate raw and cooked food – make sure cooked food is not contaminated with raw food
  • Cook food thoroughly – make sure food has been entirely cook and remains steaming hot
  • Keep food at safe temperatures – avoid food which has been left out such as at markets, buffers and street vendors
  • Choose safe food and water – Only drink sealed bottled water, or bring water to boil first. Peel all fruits and vegetables before consumption.[8]

The right medication can also offer a vital precautionary measure for travellers. Having access to effective travellers’ diarrhoea medication means that, should you fall victim to the infection, you are able to deal with your symptoms swiftly. Traveller’s diarrhoea treatment such as Ciprofloxacin and Azithromycin are available from Express Pharmacy.

Planning your next trip? Find effective medication at Express Pharmacy to ensure you stay safe. Get in touch today by calling 0208 123 07 03 or by using our discreet Live Chat service.


[1] Travel Health Pro. Travellers’ Diarrhoea Fact Sheet. 2019 [Accessed March 2019]

[2] British Medical Journal. Travellers’ diarrhoea clinical review. 2016 [Accessed March 2019]

[3] Connor, B.A. Traveller’s Diarrhoea.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017 [Accessed March 2019]

[4] Kumar, P. et al. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-blood group A interactions intensify diarrheal severity. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2018 [Accessed March 2019]

[5] NHS Blood and Transplant. Blood Types. 2018 [Accessed March 2019]

[6] NHS Fit For Travel. Travellers’ Diarrhoea. 2019 [Accessed March 2019]

[7] Hill, D.R., Beeching, N.J. Travellers’ Diarrhoea. Cur Opin Infect Dis. 2010 [Accessed March 2019]

[8] World Health Organisation. A Guide on Safe Food for Travellers. 2010 [Accessed March 2019]

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